(Note: I’m an agronomist working across the fruited plains of Oklahoma and down through north, central and south Texas. This blog is specific to that geography.)
Corn, specifically continuous corn (monoculture), is predominantly found throughout central Texas. These acres can host two major corn rootworm species: Mexican Corn Rootworms and Southern Corn Rootworms. Other areas tend to have more crops in rotation – sorghum and cotton to the south and pasture and alfalfa to the north – and have fewer incidents of crop damage from rootworms. Yes, wheat is grown throughout the region and can break the lifecycle if taken to grain but likely not if planted back to corn after being cut for wheatlage/silage (which is done primarily in the dairy-concentrated area around Stephenville, TX.)
The main rootworm specie that causes the most damage is the Mexican Corn Rootworm (MCRW). Without adequate control, it can cause significant economic damage nearly every year that corn is grown continuously. Yield damage can be as much as 40 bu/a or more and is manifested in lodged, stressed plants and reduced ear size. Fortunately for growers, insecticidal Bt traits control this pest. In the absence of traits, planter-based insecticide applications and some seed treatments can provide control, albeit sometimes limited under high pest pressure. Growers can easily scout for adult beetles around pollination time and assess potential damage for the following year’s crop. (I know, I know, it’s hot that time of year and nobody wants to be in corn field when it’s over 100 degrees. Trust me on this, it’s worth it!)
The other rootworm specie that can cause damage is the SouthernCorn Rootworm (SCRW). While the MCRW can be an annual pest, SCRW might be a problem one in only seven or eight years. Unlike the MCRW, outbreaks can not be predicted since it has so many hosts and overwinters as an adult rather than as larvae. The thing to remember about SCRW is that no commercially available Bt traits in 2020 have any effect on them. The primary form of control is insecticidal seed treatments.
Unfortunately, having a name in common with the other rootworm species makes it easy to think that plant-based Bt traits should control the SCRW but it is an exception that can be an absolute thorn in a grower’s side. It can be expensive to add seed treatments. Sure enough, the year the grower decides not to spend the money on controlling SCRW, there’s an outbreak and replant is needed in several fields, resulting in added expense and potentially reduced yields. UGH!
There are several websites, extension publications, seed industry articles, etc. on these pests. Should you like more information or have other questions, don’t hesitate to holler at me at firstname.lastname@example.org.
After six years and 5,000+ followers on Twitter (of which one-fourth were women and bots who mistakenly thought agronomists were wealthy), and a change in job responsibilities, I decided it was time to refocus my energies on social media. Frankly, I wanted to separate personal life from work and give others an opportunity to step up and take the lead on providing agronomic expertise for the growers. Too, as followers grew, I found myself spending entirely too much time muting and blocking folks that were basically trolling, getting threads completely off target and otherwise wasting my time. So I shut down my main Twitter account (@texasagronomo), set up a new one for my woodworking hobby (@tejaswoodworker) and set about refocusing my role on social media platforms.
So we start anew with @Pioneeragronomo in a new job role – that as Product Agronomist covering from Oklahoma to the Rio Grande Valley. This account will continue to support Pioneer Hi-Bred (@PioneerSeeds) and Corteva AgriScience (@CortevaUS) and will focus only on agronomy. Nothing else. And, based on previous experience, I will be quicker to mute or block the drama queens and non-believers in Pioneer genetics and won’t bat an eye or lose a second of sleep in doing so.
Every year in central and south Texas, nearly 50 Pioneer® sales reps work with growers to plant and harvest over 125 corn and sorghum plots. All of this takes place in a large region ranging from north of Waco down to the Rio Grande Valley.
In this summary, 2019 performance data of Pioneer® brand corn and sorghum hybrids are highlighted as well as research data on planting populations. Corn rootworm hybrid performance is also highlighted as 2019 saw extremely high pressure in central Texas.
2019 started with a full soil moisture profile for the entire
area. Late winter rains delayed planting
and field work except for a few areas in central Texas which managed to plant
“early.” Central Texas received excess
rains throughout the first half of the growing season causing issues with
nitrogen loss. Heat unit accumulation
was nearly ideal for the entire area up to the middle part of grain fill – then
it turned off hot and dry. By this time,
the yield potential was basically locked in.
Overall, grain quality was some of the best seen in recent years.
Yields were well above normal for some areas in central Texas with
others below normal owing to too much rain.
Further south, in the San Antonio area as well as the lower Gulf Coast,
yields were outstanding. Several farmers
reported record level yields for both corn and sorghum in these areas.
Wet years bring out the best in most hybrids but consistency
across years and across acres is a challenging concept for the seed
industry. As always, planting a mix of
products usually results in the least amount of risk across the farm.
As you study the findings in this summary don’t be afraid to reach out to your local Pioneer or Corteva sales rep with questions or comments. Now, read on!
CORN – GENETICS
The tale of two years – 2018 and 2019. Last year was a severe drought for most areas while 2019 was wetter and nearly ideal. Unfortunately, hybrids that do well during a drought are not always the best when it rains. Below are the Pioneer® brand hybrids with the most top three finishes for the last two years, ranked in order.
Other hybrids are available but
this table shows why planting a mix of hybrids (by agronomics and yield
potential as well as maturity) is important for controlling risk across the
farm. Take Pioneer® hybrid P1847VYHR
(RM 118), for example. Brand new in 2018,
it was considered “average,” as were most full maturity hybrids. This was because soil moisture ran out early
and nearly all full season hybrids were below average (P2089VYHR a notable
exception). Yet, in 2019 it was one of
the strongest performers. Pioneer hybrid
P1395YHR, a perennial favorite, fell down the charts as hybrids with higher
top-end yield potential rose to the top.
Summary: It’s easy to fall in love with the new releases from seed companies. We always encourage customers to never plant more than 20% of their acreage to new products. Spread the risk of product failure by mixing up hybrids and consider spreading out maturity to help manage harvest and mitigate timing of environmental stress. Maturities with various traits are available from 103 CRM to 120 CRM.
CORN – MEXICAN CORN ROOTWORM
Central Texas is home to a variant of the Western Corn Rootworm, called the Mexican Corn Rootworm (MCRW). While it is found only in central Texas, it’s behavior is identical to that of the Western. There is only one generation per year; adults emerge before or during silking, mate and then move down into the soil to lay eggs. The eggs overwinter, larvae hatch after enough heat has accumulated and then feed on corn roots. They develop into adults and continue the cycle. MCRW is mostly an issue with continuous corn rotations.
Do not confuse this specie with
the Southern Corn Rootworm (SCR). MCRW
has one host only – corn. SCR has over
100 hosts and overwinters as adults, not as larvae or eggs. SCR can infest corn in any rotation and is
best controlled with seed treatments. Note that corn rootworm traits expressed in
the plant HAVE NO EFFECT on SCR.
Below is a drone image of a test
plot near McGregor, TX. The strips that
appear down are lodged due to MCRW root feeding. The strips that appear normal contain corn
Summary: Infestations of MCRW can SIGNIFICANTLY reduce yields and impact fields with as few as three years of continuous corn. Scout fields before, during and after silking to evaluate adult beetle population. Treatment thresholds are published and control can be effective. Traits are not effective on SCR.
SPOTLIGHT – BLUETOOTH & GRAIN CARTS
Occasionally, a technology comes along that inspires
confidence in conducting on-farm research while also serving a practical
purpose for the farming operation. What
caught our eye this year was the Libra Cart Bluetooth technology by
Agrimatics. Grain carts are outfitted
with unloading sensors and when coupled with Bluetooth allow the operator to
see and record weights on smart devise.
For conducting on-farm research, you don’t need to stop and get out of
the combine and grain samples can be taken just outside the cab door.
This system is a pragmatic alternative to GPS driven data
management systems such as yield monitors coupled with computer programs. From an on-farm research standpoint, ease of
communication and real-time recording of weights make conducting large strip
trials much easier to execute. One
feature is the recording of weights when unloading commences – you’ll never
miss a weight that you forgot to write down!
(Source: Agrimatics.com. Please note, neither Pioneer nor Corteva AgriScience sells or promotes this technology.)
SPOTLIGHT – DRONES
Pioneer maintains one of the largest drone fleets in the
US. Nearly every field and product
agronomist uses a drone in day-to-day work during the growing season. Proprietary software is used for taking stand
counts and collaborations with DroneDeploy allowed for in-season plant health
Using drones in production agriculture complements other tools such as satellite imagery and in-field scouting. The following are a couple of examples of how Pioneer agronomists used drones. The first is aDroneDeploy image showing degrees of crop stress using software that allows the grower to see a “live” map soon after flying. The second image shows an 80-acre field where 16 stand counts were taken in less than 20 minutes. Note the color designations that show deviations from what the grower planted.
PLACING HYBRIDS – RIGHT PRODUCT, RIGHT ACRE
In the seed business, rarely can you find one hybrid that does it all – performing best in drought; when it rains; and on every soil type. Over 100 plots are planted every year in central and south Texas. This helps Pioneer professionals to better understand product behavior and how to position them on your farm. Here are the key factors that affect product performance and are key to understanding what might work on your ground:
Historic yield level
Dryland sub 80 bu/A
Dryland 80-100 bu/A
Dryland 100-140 bu/A
While certain hybrids are widely adapted, most are not. There are some that don’t like “wet feet.” There are some that can’t tolerate foliar disease or high winds (brittle/green snap). In fact, as noted in earlier sections, some don’t perform well when planted at high populations. Make sure your Pioneer rep understands the “lay of your land” and reference the category chart that follows.